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Juyongguan Great Wall

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Overview
Located 20 kilometers north of Changping County, about 60 kilometers from Beijing, Juyongguan Great Wall is a pass ('guan' means 'mountain pass') through the mountains located in an 18 km long valley named GuanGou which is in ChangPing County, more than 50 km from Beijing City. Juyongguan Pass is one of the three greatest passes of the Great Wall. Built in a beautiful valley during the period of Ming Dynasty, it played a strategic defense role in ancient times. 

Around the pass, beautiful flowers and lush trees cover the mountains. The pass was once listed as one of the eight best sceneries in Beijing in the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). Buddhist carvings on a stone platform and the "cloud terrace" in the middle of the pass also worth seeing. 

History & Background
As early as the Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC) and Warring States Period (476BC-221BC), Yan State built fortifications here. The name "Juyong" in Chinese means "a place of poor laborers". The name "Juyongguan"(Juyong Pass) was first used in the Qin Dynasty, when Emperor Qinshihuang forced many conscripts to build Great Wall on this area. It was used by more than three dynasties. 

In the Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-589), Juyongguan pass was connected to the Great Wall. It had been served as a natural barrier in the Yuan (1271-1368) and Ming (1368-1644) Dynasties. The present pass was built in the Ming Dynasty, and was renovated several times later. 

In 1644, Li Zicheng, a peasant general entered Beijing city from here and overthrew the Ming Dynasty. 

In 1987, Juyongguan Pass was enlisted in the World Heritage Directory. The pass was renovated in 1992 and 2000, and opened to the public in 1998. 

Highlight Of Juyongguan Pass
In the middle of Juyongguan Pass, there a cross-street pagoda base foundation called Yuntai, which means "it looks like staying in the clouds when you seeing from afar". It was built in 1342 to 1345, of white marble stones, 9.5 meters height and 25 meters wide and in the classical architectural style of the Yuan Dynasty. At the center of the base foundation, there is an arch doorway for pedestrians, horses and carriages to pass through. It is carved with images of animals, plants and Buddha.

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Three Lama Pagodas and a Buddhist Temple had been built in late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty respectively, but they were all destroyed by serious damage and great fire. Now just the base foundation is left.

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The South Pass' Earthen Castle is shaped like a horse's hoof. During battles, the enemies were caught inside the Earthen Castle when they ran through a hidden battlement and they couldn't escape. Emplacements are set up at the North Castle. There is a War Temple built, with the solemn images of the Twelve Chinese Horoscopes, God of Water and Fire, General God of Eight Skies and True War King.

The five ancient cannons are being displayed near the walls of South and North Passes. They were from the Ming Dynasty. This period was the best era for making ancient cannons in China.

The stone carvings at Yuntai are a great sight to recommend. They are seen on the sides and the top in the archway. The Buddha images are lifelike, which are of excellent craftsmanship, with Buddhist sutras and conjurations in six different languages (such as Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese and Basiba which is a language derived from Tibetan made under the order of the Yuan Emperor Kublai Khan as Mongolian new letters, but it had been used only for a brief period). They are invaluable resources to Buddhist historical researchers and archeological enthusiasts. Also, the stone sculptures have been listed as China's key protection culture heritage in 1961.

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The Water Gate is designed in the astonishing mountain landscape which there are two mountains with a narrow waterway in between. Water flows through Juyongguan Pass, and the Water Gate is built at the junction area. This is used for controlling the amount of water, which varies drastically by seasonal changes. In the flood season, it will drain the water and in draught time it can store the water for Juyongguan Pass soldiers' daily use.

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Information
Opening Hours: Peak Season: 8:00-17:00 Off-season: 8:30-16:00

Address: Juyongguan Great Wall Administrative office, Nankou Town, Changping District, Beijing

Admission Fee:CNY 40(off-peak season); CNY 45 (peak season)

Transportation
By Bus
1.Take the Subway Line 13 and get off at Longze Station in Changping District, take the shuttle bus No.68 and you will get there.

2.Take the shuttle bus No.919 (shuttle bus) (Deshengmen West - Nankou) at Deshengmen Station and get off at Nankou Dongjie Station and take bus No. 68 in Changping District and get off at the terminal station, or take bus No. 345 (fast line) and get off at Shahe, and take bus No. 68 to there. The trip from Deshengmen Station to Nankou Dongjie Station takes about one and half an hours and the ticket costs 6 RMB. The trip from Nankou Dongjie Station to the pass takes about 20 minutes and the ticket costs 0.5 RMB.

Car Route
Take the Badaling Expressway and take the Juyongguan Pass Exit.

Subway Route
Take the Subway Line 13 to Longze Station, then take the bus No.68 of Changping District to Juyongguan Pass.

Best Time to Visit:May to October

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